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The Seerat (Biography) of Hadrat Muhammad (ﷺ)

The study of the seerat [life history] of the Holy Prophet, Hadrat Muhammad Peace be upon him (PBUH) is essential to understand, inter alia, his conduct in the personal, social, economic and political spheres, his way of teaching and preaching, as well as his strategy in peace and war. For us Muslims the study of his seerat is most important along with the study of Quran and Hadeeth because God Almighty has sent him as a model and as an exemplar for the guidance and emancipation of the mankind.

The study of seerat enlightens us about the conditions of success and failure of the community of believers. Those obeying the ordinances of Allah and teachings of his messenger rest assured that Allah is with them and his succour is readily available to them. It is ordained in Quran:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ تَنصُرُوا اللَّهَ يَنصُرْكُمْ وَيُثَبِّتْ أَقْدَامَكُمْ (محمد: 7)

Translation of Meaning: “O you who have believed, if you support Allah he will support you and stabilize your feet” (Muhammad: 7). It is declared again:

إِنَّا لَنَنصُرُ رُسُلَنَا وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَيَوْمَ يَقُومُ الأَشْهَادُ (غافر:51)

“Verily We support our messengers and those who have believed both in this worldly life and the day when witnesses shall be arraigned”(Ghafir: 51).

Similarly, Allah (Ta’ala) says:

وَلَيَنصُرَنَّ اللَّهُ مَنْ يَنصُرُهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ (الحج: 40)

“Allah shall support those who support him. Verily Allah is powerful and mighty” (Al-Hajj: 40).

The Genealogy of the Prophet:

The line of ascendance of Hadrat Muhammad runs like this:  Muhammad Bin Abdullah Bin Abdul Muttalib Bin Hisham Bin Abd Manaf Bin Qusai Bin Kulab Bin Murrah Bin Ka’b Bin Luwai Bin Ghalib Bin Fahr Bin Malik Bin An-Nudhar Bin Kinanah Bin Khuzaimah Bin Mudrikah Bin Ilyas Bin Mudhir Bin Nazar Bin Ma’d Bin Adnan. This is an agreed upon genealogy of the holy prophet. Historians have agreed that Adnan was a descendant of Hadrat Ismael (Alaihis Salam).

The Names of the Prophet:

As narrated through Jubair Bin Mut’im (Radhi Allahu Anhu), the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ )declared:

إن لي أسماء ، أنا محمد ، وأنا أحمد ، وأنا الماحي الذي يمحو الله بي الكفر ، وأنا الحاشر الذي يحشر الناس على قدمي ، وأنا العاقب الذي ليس بعده أحد”

“Verily I have a number of names: I am Muhammad, and I am Ahmad, and I am Mahi [eraser] through whom Allah shall erase disbelief, and I am Hashir [the gatherer] as people will be gathered at my feet, and I am ‘Aqib [the last coming] because no messenger will come after me” [unanimous].

As narrated through Hadrat Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari, the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ ) mentioned his several names:

“أنا محمد ، وأحمد ، والمقفى ، والحاشر ، ونبي التوبة ، ونبي الرحمة”

Translation of Meaning: “I am Muhammad, and Ahmad, and Muqaffa, and Hashir, and Nabi At-Taubah [Prophet of Repentance], and Nabi Ar-Rahmah [the Prophet of Mercy]” [Muslim].

His Lineage:

It is narrated through Wathilah Bin Asqa’ (A) that the Messenger of Allah announced:

“إن الله اصطفى من ولد ابراهيم اسماعيل ، واصطفى من ولد اسماعيل بني كنانه ، واصطفى من بني كنانه قريشا ، واصطفى من قريش بني هاشم ، واصطفاني من بني هاشم”.

Translation of Meaning: “Verily Allah chose Ismael out of the progeny of Ibrahim, and chose Bani Kinanah out of the progeny of Ismael, and chose Quraish out of Bani Kinanah, and chose Bani Hashim out of Quraish, and chose me out of Bani Hashim” [Muslim].

When Hiraql asked Abu Sufiyan about the lineage of Hadrat Muhammad he replied that he belongs to a high family. Thereupon Hiraql commented that prophets are selected from the high families of their communities [Bukhari].


 

His Birth:

The Messenger of Allah ( )was born on a Monday of the lunar month of Rabiul Awwal. His date of birth has variously been fixed as 2nd, 8th, 10th, or 12th Rabiul Awwal. [The majority of Muslims celebrate his birthday on 12th Rabiul Awwal]. According to Ibn Kathir, he was born in the Year of Elephants [when Abraham of Yemen invaded Makkah with elephants to demolish Ka’bah]. Noted Islamic historians agree with this view.

Muslim historians note that his mother did not feel any burden while bearing him in her womb. At his birth a light appeared brightening the sphere from east to west.

As narrated by ‘Arbadh Bin Sariah (Radhi Allahu Anhu), the Messenger of Allah ( )declared:

“إني عند الله في أم الكتاب لخاتم النبيين ، وإن آدم لمنجدل في طينته ، وسأنبئكم بتأويل ذلك ، دعوة أبي إبراهيم ، وبشارة عيسى قومه ، ورؤيا أمي التي رأت أنه خرج منها نور أضاءت له قصور الشام ، وكذلك ترى أمهات المؤمنين صلوات الله عليهم”.

Translation of Meaning: “I was there in the master book of Allah the seal of all prophets even when Adam was still enveloped by clay. And I shall let you know its explanation. I am the prayer of my forefather Ibrahim, the tiding of Isa to his people, and the dream of my mother who saw a light emanating from her which brightened the palaces of Syria. Like that dream the mothers of all apostles Allah’s peace be on all of them” [Ahmad].

The prophet’s father died while he was still in the womb.

Suckling of the Prophet:

After his birth Thaubiah, the bondwoman of Abu Lahab, suckled him for some time thereafter he was suckled by Lady Halimah and stayed with her for four years among her tribe of Bani Sa’d. He was there when an angel came to open his chest, took out his heart, washed it by the water of Zamzam, replaced it and closed the chest. Thereafter he was given to the custody of his mother Lady Aminah.

When the Prophet was of six years his mother died at a place called Abwaa. When the Messenger of Allah ( )passed by this place during his migration to Makkah he sought Allah’s permission to visit his mother’s grave. Permitted to visit it he along with his companions wept over it. Thereafter, he exhorted them to keep on visiting the graves because they remind you of Akhirah [After-Life].

After the demise of his mother, he was taken under the care of his grandfather Hadrat Abdul Muttalib. His grandfather died when he was of eight years. Thereafter he was reared by his uncle Hadrat Abu Talib. He took great care of him and after his appointment as the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ ) helped him a lot and protected him. He died as a disbeliever but, as it has arrived in authentic ahadeeth, God lightened his punishment on account of his help to the Prophet.

Once Hadrat Ibn Abbas (RadhiAllahu Anhu) asked the Prophet: Have you done any good to your uncle? He protected you, helped you and became angry with people for your sake.  The Prophet said:

“نعم هو ضَحضاح من نار، لولا أنا لكان في الدّرك الأسفلِ من النار”

Translation of Meaning: “Yes. He is in the upper part of Hell. But for me he would have been in the lowest bottom” [Bukhari].

His Immunity from Evils of Ignorance:

Allah (t) had made him immune from the evils of ignorance ever since his childhood. He was invested with high morals and noble character. When he grew up he was referred to as sadiq [truthful] and amin [trustworthy] by the people.

When he was of 35 years of age, the Quraish embarked upon reconstruction of Ka’bah. When they reached to the point of the Black Stone a dispute erupted among them over who will place the Stone on its place. To settle the dispute somebody suggested to pick an arbitrator. They agreed that whosoever arrives at the site first will be made arbitrator. By chance Hadrat Muhammad arrived there. Those assembled said an amin has arrived in your midst. He was then apprised of the matter. Then he put the Black Stone in a piece of cloth and called the members of Quraish clans to grasp to grasp the corners of the cloth and lift stone. When they carried it to its site, the Prophet lifted the stone in his own hands and fixed it on its site [Ahmad].

His Marriage:

He married Lady Khadijah when he was twenty-five years of age. Hadrat Khadijah was forty years of age. It so happened that Lady Khadijah entrusted her merchandise to Hadrat Muhammad and deputed him along with her bondman Maisarah for trade in Syria. The latter became greatly impressed by the Prophets manners, truthfulness and trustworthiness. Coming back, he narrated the tales of his trust and truthfulness to Lady Khadijah. She became beholden to him and proposed to him. Thus, they entered into wedlock.

Lady Khadijah passed away three years before the hijrat [migration] of the prophet to Makkah. He was so attached to her that so long as she lived he did not think of marrying any other woman. After her demise, he first married Lady Saudah Bint Zama’h [a widow] and then Hadrat Ayesha, the daughter of his close friend and companion Hadrat Abu Bakr, the lone virgin bride in his life. Thereafter, compelled by personal, social and political considerations he married different ladies of a middle age at different intervals. Those whom he married after Hadrat Ayesha were: Hafsah Bint Umar Bin Al-Khattab, Zainab Bint Khuzaimah, Umme Salmah, Zainab Bint Jahsh, Juwairiyyah Bint Harith, Umme Habibah, Safiyyah Bint Hayy, and lastly Maimunah Bint Harith.

His Children:

All his children were born of Hadrat Khadijah except Ibrahim who was born of Maria, an Egyptian Coptic bondwoman. His sons were:

  1. 1.Al-Qasim [after whom the prophet took the kunniyyat of Abul Qasim]. 2.Tayyib.

3.Tahir.

All of them died during their infancy in the lifetime of the Prophet.

The daughters born to the Prophet were:

  1. Zainab, his eldest daughter, who married her cousin Abul ‘Aas Bin Arr-Rabi’.
  2. Ruqayyah, who married Hadrat Uthman Bin ‘ Affan, the companion and third successor of the prophet.
  3. Umme Kulthum, who married Hadrat Uthman Bin ‘Affan after the death of Hadrat Ruqayyah.
  4. Fatimah, the youngest who married the Prophet’s cousin Hadrat Ali Bin Abi Talib and bore two sons–Hasan and Husain–for him.

According to Imam Nawvi (May Allah have mercy on him), Islamic historians are agreed that the Prophet had three sons and four daughters.

His Mission:

When he was forty years of age, he was assigned the apostolic mission by God Almighty. Hadrat Ayesha (RA) narrates that before the commencement of revelation Hadrat Muhammad (PBUH) began to see pleasant and true dreams and whatever he was shown in his dreams, became true as the light of the day. Then he became inclined to seek seclusion. He chose the cave of Hira as the venue of his seclusion and meditation. There he engaged in devotion and invocation of God for days and nights until his eatables exhausted then he came back home to take the provisions and again confined himself to the cave. It was amidst this routine that one day in the cave of Hira he saw a vision. The Archangel Hadrat Jibril (AS) approached him and said, “O Muhammad, Iqra [Read].” Hadrat Muhammad replied that he cannot read. Thereupon the angel pressed him hard to his bosom and releasing him said, “ Iqra” [Read]. Again the prophet replied that he cannot read. The angel pressed him hard a third time to the consternation of the prophet and released him. Then he recited to him the verses of Surah Iqra:

اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ (1) خَلَقَ الإِنسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ (2) اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الأَكْرَمُ (3) الَّذِي عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ (4) عَلَّمَ الإِنسَانَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ (العلق 1-5)

Translation of Meaning: “Read: In the name of your Lord who created. Created man from a clot of blood. Read: And your Lord is Most Exalted. Who taught by means of the pen. Taught man what he knew not” (Al-‘Alaq: 1-5).

After hearing these verses from Jibril (AS) he came back home trembling. He asked Hadrat Khadijah to cover him up with a blanket. When his fear subsided and he regained his calm he narrated his experience to his wife and said that his life is threatened. Hadrat Khadijah consoled him by saying that Allah will not let him down because he is a good man helping the poor and needy. He honours his guests. He always supports what is right. Such a man cannot be deprived of life. To sustain him further she took him to her cousin Warqah Bin Naufil, a sage of the area who had converted to Christianity and was learned in the Hebrew language. He had become quite old and had lost his eyesight. Hadrat Khadijah told him what had happened to him and said, “O my cousin please listen to Muhammad.’ After hearing an account of what had happened to him from the beginning till the end Warqah Bin Naufil exclaimed that you have seen the same angel who had transmitted divine revelation to Jesus Christ. I wish I were a young man at the beginning of your apostleship. I wish I could live till the time when your folk will expel you from the city. Surprised the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ )asked him, “Will they expel me from here?” Warqah said whatever you have seen is true. Anybody who comes with a mission of truth is opposed and persecuted by the people. If I survive till that day I shall help you fully. But soon after that Warqah died [Bukhari].

According to another tradition narrated through Hadrat Jabir Bin Abdullah Ansari (RA), the Messenger of Allah ( ) told desired to be covered by a blank hat when a long time [about six months] passed after the initial revelation on Mount Hira he was going his way when he heard a sound from the sky. When he looked up he had the vision of the same angel who had appeared to him on Mount Hira. He was seated on a seat which filled the space between heaven and earth. Again he was frightened and coming back home enveloped himself in a cloak. At that moment these verses were revealed to him:

يَا أَيُّهَا الْمُدَّثِّرُ (1) قُمْ فَأَنذِرْ (2) وَرَبَّكَ فَكَبِّرْ (3) وَثِيَابَكَ فَطَهِّرْ (4) (المدثر: 1-4)

Translation of Meaning : “O you enveloped in your cloak. Arise and warn [the people]. Exalt your creator. Purify your attire. And shun the dirt” (Al-Mudaththir: 1-4).

Imam Ibn Al-Jawzi writes that after this, the Prophet began to preach to his family members and intimates clandestinely for almost three years. Then he was directed to make his mission public by this ayat:

فَاصْدَعْ بِمَا تُؤْمَرُ وَأَعْرِضْ عَنْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ (الحجر: 94)

Translation of Meaning: “Declare what you are being ordered” (Al-Hijr: 94).

Thereafter he started preaching people openly. When this verse was revealed:

وَأَنذِرْ عَشِيرَتَكَ الأَقْرَبِينَ (الشورى: 214)

Translation of Meaning: “And warn the members of your clan” (Ash-Shu’ara: 214) he went on top of Mount Marwah and called: Ya Sabaha! [Wake up] Beware! When people recognized him they assembled there. Addressing the members of his clan he declared, “If I tell you that there is a cavalry beneath this mount ready to attack you will you believe me?” They said, “we never found you lying.” Then he said, “I am here to warn you of a severe torment.” Abu Lahab exclaimed, “Woe be to you! Have you called us to tell this?” When he rose up these verses of Surah Lahab denouncing Abu Lahab were revealed:

تَبَّتْ يَدَا أَبِي لَهَبٍ وَتَبَّ (المسد: 1)

Translation of Meaning: “May both hands of Abu Lahab be broken and may he perish. (Al-Masad: 1) [Bukhari].

Prophet’s Forbearance: He stood fast in face of the torment and opposition from the pagans and when persecution

of the believers intensified, he advised them to migrate to Hashish [Ethiopia].

Ibn Is’haq records that soon after the death of his uncle Abu Talib, the pagans of Makkah who would not dare touch him during his life, were let loose against him. He uttered in anguish:

“يا عمُّ ما أسرعَ ما وَجَدتُ فَقدَكَ” (معجم طبراني)

Translation of Meaning: “O my uncle, I miss you so soon after your departure” [Mu’jam Tibrani].

Once the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ ) was engaged in salat. Members of Quraish were present around him. The pouch of a camel was lying nearby. Out of mischief somebody asked who will place this pouch on the back of Muhammad. One named “Aqabah Bin Abi Mu’eet offered himself. Under the weight of the pouch the Prophet was unable to raise his head from prostration. When Hadrat Fatimah knew of it she hurriedly threw away the nuisance from his back. She began to curse them. When the prophet finished his salat, he, too, prayed for the destruction of the chiefs of Quraish [unanimous].

One day, the Prophet was praying in the courtyard of the Ka’bah. Meanwhile, ‘Aqabah Bin Mu’eet came and wrapping a piece of cloth around his neck tried to strangulate him. When Hadrat Abu Baker was informed, he rescued the Prophet and reprimanded the transgressor [Bukhari].

His Affection for his Community:

Soon after the death of his uncle Abu Talib and wife Khadijah, he went to Taif to preach the faith. He invited the local chiefs to the right path but they mistreated him and beckoned the anti-socials to pursue him. They hurt him and made him bleed by throwing stones upon him heavily. He retreated in dejection. On coming back he narrated that; Translation of Meaning: “When I reached Qarn Ath-Tha’alib I regained my senses. Lo! I saw then a patch of cloud shadowing me. When I looked up I saw Hadrat Jibril (Alaihis Salam) who accosted me to say, “Allah has known what has happened to you. Allah has sent the angels of mountains are with me. I you so wish they can smash them between two mountains.” Then the angels of mountains saluted him and asked him to bid them what to do. The Prophet replied I should hope that Allah makes their coming generations to worship him only and to desist from shirk.

In every Haj season he used to visit to visit various camps to ask them who is going to give him refuge and who is there to help him spread the message of God and to earn paradise as a reward because Quraish had prevented him from spreading the word of God.

The members of Quraish tutored those coming for Haj from far away places like Yemen or Egypt to keep away from this young man as he would mislead him. Whenever he passed by their tents, they raised their finger to identify him. Then the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ )met and sermonised sixteen persons from Yathrib who embraced the faith and when they went back their households, also joined the faith. Eventually, all households in Yathrib were converted. At ‘Aqabah they had taken an oath of allegiance to the Prophet secretly. It was against this background that Allah allowed the prophet to migrate along with the believers to Madinah.

His Hijrat to Madinah: To escape persecution at the hands of the Quraish, the Prophet secretly left Makkah along with his escort Hadrat Abu Bakr and hid himself for three days in the cave of Thaur on Mount Hira. Pursuing him, the Quraish had reached the cave but, by the grace of Allah, they were concealed from their eyes. Then they headed towards Madinah where they received a warm welcome. First of all, the Prophet along with his companions built his masjid in Madinah.

The Religious Battles of the Prophet:

It is narrated through Hadrat Ibn Abbas that when the Prophet was compelled to migrate from Makkah Hadrat Abu Bakr said that these people have expelled their prophet. Now they will perish certainly. At that moment Allah (T) revealed this verse:

أُذِنَ لِلَّذِينَ يُقَاتَلُونَ بِأَنَّهُمْ ظُلِمُوا وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَى نَصْرِهِمْ لَقَدِيرٌ (الحج: 39)

Translation of Meaning: “Those who are being combated are allowed [to start jihad] because they have been oppressed and persecuted” (Al-Hajj: 39).

This is acknowledged to be the first revelation permitting the defensive war against religious persecution.

Umrah and Haj Performed by the Prophet:

During the whole of his life the Prophet performed Haj only once which came to be known as Hijjatul Widaa’.  Before that, he performed Umrah four times, all of them during the month of Dhul Qa’dah.  The first was  the Umrah of Hudaibiyyah which he performed under pact after he had been detained from performing it by the pagans of Makkah.  The second Umrah was the Umrah of Qadha,  the third was that of Ja’ranah and the fourth was one that he combined with his Haj.

The Complexion of the Prophet:

 

It is narrated through Hadrat Ali (RA) that the Prophet was of a normal height neither too long nor too short. He had a big head and a thick beard. His palms and soles were fluffy. The face had a tint of red.  He had a long plait of hair running from his chest down to the navel. His bone joints were very solid. He walked with light steps as if he were descending into a hollow. I never saw one like before him or after him [Ahmad].

His Demeanour:

 

Of all people, he was  the most generous,  most gentle, lenient, a good host and pious and humble.  For him Allah (T) declared:

وَإِنَّكَ لَعَلى خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ (القلم: 4)

Translation of Meaning: “Verily you are of a great demeanour” (Al-Qalam: 4). He was extremely  modest; used to give gifts to others and accepted gifts from others;  he never accepted any charity nor consumed it for himself [in fact he barred all of Banu Hashim from accepting charity]; he never became angry for his own sake; if ever he became angry he did so in the cause of Allah; he was never formal in matter of food, rather he took gratefully whatever was served before him. He never ate resting his back but sitting straight. He had a big householder but slender means so he never ate full stomach.  Out of penury, the stove of his house remained cold for months. He was very sympathetic towards the poor and destitute, whom he always helped. He nursed the sick and accompanied the funeral processions of the dead.

He had a subtle sense of humour and always spoke the truth. He smiled but never laughed aloud.  He attended to his household chores himself. He pronounced:

“خيركم خيركم لأهله ، وأنا خيركم لأهلي”

Translation of Meaning : “The best among you s one who is best in treatment of his family” [Tirmidhi].

Hadrat Anas (RadhiAllahu Anhu) narrated that “I served the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ )for ten years. By God, he never said oaf to me at all and he never said why did you this and why did you not do this? [Muslim].

The prophet is credited with a number of miracles. For instance, at his beckoning the moon once had split into two then joined again. And many times he was informed of the unknown matters [ghaib].

Excellence of the Prophet:

It is narrated through Hadrat Jabir Bin Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah ( )declared:

أُعطيت خمسا لم يعطهن أحد من الأنبياء قبلي : نُصرت بالرعب مسيرة شهر وجُعلت لي الأرض مسجداً وطهوراً ، فأيما رجل من أمتي أدركته الصلاة فليصلِّ وأُحلّت لي الغنائم ، ولم تُحلّ لأحد قبلي وأعطيتُ الشفاعة وكان النبي يبعث إلى قومه خاصة ، وبعثت إلى الناس عامّة .(متفق عليه)

Translation of Meaning: “I have been granted five things which were not granted to anybody before me: I have been helped by awe at walking distance of a month, and the whole earth has been made a place of worship and pure for me, so wherever anyone from my ummah finds salat he must perform it, the spoils of war have been made licit for me when it was never licit for any, I have been granted the privilege of interceding on behalf of my followers, and every prophet before me was deputed to his own community particularly whereas I have been deputed to all people in general” [unanimous].

He also pronounced:

“أنا أول الناس يشفع في الجنة ، وأنا أكثر الأنبياء تبعا ، وأنا أول من يقرع باب الجنة” (مسلم)

Translation of Meaning: “I shall be the first man to intercede in the paradise, among the prophets I have the most numerous followers, and I will be the first who will knock at the door of the paradise” [Muslim].

The Messenger of Allah ( ) also pronounced:

“أنا سيد ولد آدم يوم القيامة ، وأول من يُشق عنه القبر ،  وأول شافع وأول مشفع”

Translation of Meaning : “On the Day of Rising I shall be the leader of Adam’s progeny, I shall be one whose grave will open up first, I shall be the first to intercede and the first to be interceded for”.

Devotion and Livelihood of the Prophet:

 

Hadrat Ayesha (RadhiAllahu Anha) narrated:

إن نبي الله صلى الله عليه وسلم كان يقوم من الليل حتى تتفطر قدماه، فقالت عائشة : لم تصنع هذا يا رسول الله ، وقد غفر الله لك ما تقدم من ذنبك وما تأخر؟ قال : “أفلا أحب أن أكون عبدا شكورا”

Translation of Meaning : “The Messenger of Allah ( ) used to pray standing through the night till his legs swelled. I said to him: O Messenger of Allah, why do you do so when Allah has forgiven you for all your past and present sins?  He replied: “Should I not love to become a grateful bondman?” [Bukhari].

Hadrat Ayesha (RA) narrated that the bed of the Prophet was of leather filled with date-palm stem peel.

About his livelihood Hadrat Ayesha (RA) reported:  “The Messenger of Allah ( ) did not afford the wheat bread for three days consecutively until he passed away” [Muslim].

According to yet another narration of Hadrat Ayesha (RadhiAllahu Anha),

“إن كنا آل محمد نمكثُ شهرا ما نستوقد بنار إن هو إلا الماء والتمر” (الترمذي)

Translation of meaning : “We the household of Muhammad did not fire our stove for a month at a stretch  living on dates and plain water” [Tirmidhi].

Hadrat Umar Bin Khattab (RadhiAllahu Anhu) reported:

“لقد رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يظل اليوم يلتوي ، ما يجد دقلا يملأ به بطنه”(مسلم)

I have seen the Messenger of Allah ( )reeling with hunger throughout the day and he did not find even the refuse of dates to fill his stomach” [Muslim].

We should be thankful to Allah for raising us in the ummah of Hadrat Muhammad and pray to Him to enable us to follow the Holy Book and the sublime sunnah of His messenger.

Chronology:

  • Isra and Me’raj: The miracle of Ascension happened three years before the hijrat of the Prophet from Makkah to Madinah. It was on this occasion that the salat for five times a day was mandated for the believers.
  • First year of Hijrat: Construction of the masjid of the Prophet soon after arrival in Madinah. Payment of zakat made mandatory. Emerging contours of an Islamic polity.
  • Second Year: The Battle of Badr which ended in the victory of believers and defeat of the infidels.
  • Third Year: The Battle of Uhud. In this ghazwah the believers suffered a setback as a result of defying the prophet’s directions.
  • Fourth Year: The Battle of Bani Nudhair. Operation against the Jewish tribe of Bani Nudhair for treachery and breach of pact between them and believers. Deportation of Bani Nudhair from Madinah.
  • Fifth Year: The Battles of Bani Mustaliq, Ahzab, and Bani Quradhah.
  • Sixth Year: The Peace of Hudaibiyyah. Prohibition of liquor.
  • Seventh Year: The victory in the Battle of Khyber led to triumphant march of the believers into Makkah. The Prophet performed Umrah at Makkah and married Safiyyah Bint Hayy.
  • Eighth Year: Battles between believers and Romans at Mautah and Hunain.
  • Nineth Year: The Battle of Tabuk fought. It was the last ghazwah under he prophet. Deputations arrive to embrace Islam. Arabia comes under Islam.
  • Tenth Year: Hijjatul Widaa’: The Prophet performed the last haj in company of 100,000 of his companions and followers.
  • Eleventh Year: Passing away of the Prophet. The prophet died at the age of 63 years in the month of lunar Rabiyul Awwal.

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