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THE QUALITIES OF POLITICAL SYSTEM IN ISLAM

 1. INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM:

The Islamic political system is an international system, the proof of its internationalism is given by Islam itself because Islam is a global religion, and this system is not confined to any specific time and place; instead its adaptability is accurate for every place and era. Islam has given the right to such scholars, who have an expertise in deduction in the light of reasons, to ponder about and to explain new arising problems in a way that they fully justify the objectives of Islam and are within the range of usual Islamic I junctions. The injunctions or commands of Islam are described by the following two methods:

  1. 1. CLEAR DESCRIPTIVE COMMANDS:

The commands which are proven by any verse of the Holy Qur’an and there is no ambiguity or difference in meanings, or their proof is from the authentic Sahih Ahadith. There is no space for any Ijtehad or consensus needed in it like the commands of prayer, Zakaat, Hajj and inheritance etc.

  1. 2. Such commands the proof of which is given in any Qur’anic verse, but there is some difference of opinion about their meaning among scholars, or it has been narrated from any weak Hadith, or if the Hadith is Sahih but the scholars are not agreed upon one of its meanings, or there are some commands of behaviors which are related with some rules of jurisprudence. The religious scholars (related to consensus) have the right to share their opinions by which the counseling of any specific place or specific era is fulfilled in an Islamic society, as well as the spirit of the Shariah retains and those objectives of Shariah are also fulfilled in which there is betterment and goodness for people.
  1. 1. COLLABORATIVE SUPPORT BETWEEN THE INDIVIDULA AND THE SOCIETY:

In an Islamic system, the relation between an individual and the society is of mutual support. Islam does not favour those opinions and ideas because of which some conflict occurs between the individual and the society. Some theories give

preference to individual over the society, for example, the Capitalism. Some prefer the society over the individual. Whereas Islam maintains a balance between these two, thus Islam confesses the individual responsibility in which everyone is responsible for his work. Allah Almighty says:

أَلَّا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزْرَ أُخْرَىٰ (38) وَأَنْ لَيْسَ لِلْإِنْسَانِ إِلَّا مَا سَعَىٰ (39) (النجم: 38 – 39)

 Translation of Meaning: “Namely, that no bearer of burdens can bear the burden of another. That man can have nothing but what he strives for.” (An-Najm: 38-39)

 

Islam encourages an individual that he creates harmony with the society and fulfills his responsibility towards it, does good deeds and stops others from bad deeds. Thus an individual has a lot of responsibilities in terms of his own self and the society, the fulfillment of which is really important for him.

Islam emphasizes on collective responsibility as well, that is why it is obliged to ordain others for good deeds and stops them from bad deeds/ The Holy Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) has explained the example of collective responsibility in this hadith:

«مِثْلَ الْقَائِمِ عَلَى حُدُودِ اللَّهِ وَالْوَاقِعِ فِيهَا كَمَثَلِ قَوْمٍ اسْتَهَمُوا عَلَى سَفِينَةٍ فَأَصَابَ بَعْضُهُمْ أَعْلَاهَا وَبَعْضُهُمْ أَسْفَلَهَا فَكَانَ الَّذِينَ فِي أَسْفَلِهَا إِذَا اسْتَقَوْا مِنَ الْمَاءِ مَرُّوا عَلَى مَنْ فَوْقَهُمْ فَقَالُوا: لَوْ أَنَّا خَرَقْنَا فِي نَصِيبِنَا خَرْقًا وَلَمْ نُؤْذِ مَنْ فَوْقَنَا فَإِنْ يَتْرُكُوهُمْ وَمَا أَرَادُوا هَلَكُوا جَمِيعًا وَإِنْ أَخَذُوا عَلَى أَيْدِيهِمْ نَجَوْا وَنَجَوْا جَمِيعًا» (صحيح بخاري)

Translation: “The example of the people who follow the restrictions of Allah and the ones who intrude in it (the ones who differ from them) is like such people who casted a draw for a boat. As a result of which some people got the upper part of the boat, while the other got the lower portion of the boat. Hence the people who were in the lower portion, had to cross near the people of the upper portion to fetch some water. They thought to put a hole in their portion so that they would not disturb the people of the upper portion. Now if the people of the upper portion would allow the people of the lower portion to do whatever they want, so in the end all of them would be killed. And if the people of the upper portion would stop the people of the lower portion so not only they would be saved but also the whole group of people of the boat would be saved.” (Sahih Bukhari).

The relation of an individual with the government is of mutual support. Islam has given basic rights to an individual and made the government restricted to follow the commands of Allah. Islam prohibits the government to interfere in any personal affairs without any reason.

Allah Almighty says:

يَٰدَاوُۥدُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَٰكَ خَلِيفَةًۭ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ فَٱحْكُم بَيْنَ ٱلنَّاسِ بِٱلْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعِ ٱلْهَوَىٰ فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ (26) (ص: 26)

Translation of Meaning: “O David! We did indeed make thee a vicegerent on earth: so judge thou between men in truth (and justice): Nor follow thou the lusts (of thy heart), for they will mislead thee from the path of Allah.” ( Saad:  26)

Islam has specified some ethical rules for a Muslim individual and has made it obliged on him/her to follow the Islamic government which implements the Shariah (law) of Allah. He should not only assist such government but sacrifices his life and wealth for its protection too. The Holy Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) said:

«اسْمَعُوا وَأَطِيعُوا وَإِنِ اسْتُعْمِلَ حَبَشِيٌّ كَأَنَّ رَأْسَهُ زَبِيبَةٌ»

 

Translation: “Listen to and follow even an Ethiopian slave is made a rules over you whose head is similar to (means smaller) a raisin.” (Sahih Bukhari)

  1. ISLAMIC GOVERNMENT IS A PART OF ISLAMIC SOCIETY:

 

Islam does not want that any group outside of Islamic society would rule the Muslim nation forcibly. Allah Almighty says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَأُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ (59) ( النساء : 59)

Translation of Meaning: “O ye who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and those charged with authority among you.” (An-Nisaa: 59)

The wording of Allah”مِنکُم” limits the condition of the ruler and the ruled, it means that the Islamic government should be of Muslims and not of non-Muslims. Allah Almighty says:

 وَلَن يَجْعَلَ ٱللَّهُ لِلْكَٰفِرِينَ عَلَى ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلًا (141) (النساء: 141)

Translation of Meaning: “And never will Allah grant to the unbelievers a way (to triumph) over the believers.” (An-Nisaa: 141).

  1. HARMONY BETWEEN THE EDUCATION AND THE RULES:

The system of Islamic culture, whether it is ethical or economic or political, every one of them has some effect over and gets influenced by the other. For example, the economic system cannot reach to its desired level and cannot develop the mutual assistance among people without education and ethical rules. If this happens then anarchy could be spread in the political institutions easily.

THE DISTINCTION OF ISLAMIC RULES IN COMPARISON WITH THE WESTERN RULES:

The western rules and regulations are literally followed by the orders of the majority, whether the majority is incorrect or correct. The same majority formulates the laws and rules people, whereas there is the supremacy of Allah in an Islamic system and Allah is the real Rules. Allah Almighty says:

إِنِ ٱلْحُكْمُ إِلَّا لِلَّه (40) (يوسف: 40)

Translation of Meaning: “…The command is for none but Allah.” (Yusuf: 40)

The Muslim nation and Islamic government is bound to follow the orders and commands of Allah and the real happiness, comfort and please is sought because of this.

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