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MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE

Mughal architecture means the architecture which Mughals built in their occupied areas especially the sub-continent in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth century. The examples of Mughal architecture can be seen now in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh. Mughals especially built the tombs which are against the spirit of Islamic Shariah and there is no room in Islam for this. The rout cause of this trend was lack of religious knowledge and the impact of old Indian culture.

Mughal emperors not only had a good taste in the architecture but they also had great interest in settling the cities and constructing buildings and gardens. The cities of Dhaka, Delhi, Fateh Pur Sikri, Gujrat and Aurangabad etc. were settled by them. Beautiful fortresses, palaces, mosques, gardens, bridges and caravan hospices were built in these and the other cities, a number of which still exist today.  No era of the sub-continent could compete with the Mughal architecture. The cities in which they constructed the buildings, those are still the most beautiful and attractive buildings of those cities. To state this is even not wrong that in the second era of the Muslims period of rising, the most beautiful and magnificent buildings of the Islamic world were built in the Mughal period of the subcontinent Indo-Pak.  The architecture in the Mughal era has no parallel to it.

TAJ MAHAL: 

It is an excellent model and magnificent masterpiece of Mughal architecture. The Emperor Shah Jahan built it in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal. It structural style is a unique combination of Persian, Turkish, Indian and Islamic architecture. In 1983, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognised Taj Mahal as world cultural heritage site. Also, it was regarded as one of the best buildings that hold the comprehensive definition of world cultural heritage. Taj Mahal is considered as the unique and practical model of Islamic architecture in India. This building was completed in 25 years from 1625 A.D. till 1650 A.D. In its construction, four and the half crore rupees (Forty Five Million Rupees) were spent and twenty thousand constructors and labourers participated in its completion. The whole building is made of marbles. Its length and width is 130 feet and its height is 200 feet. On the marbled walls of the building, beautiful stonework with colorful stones is mosaicked. The verses of

Qur’an are written in the mosaic form inside and outside the tomb. There is one tower each on every corner of the building. The platform of the building, which is several feet above than the ground level, is made of bloodstone.  On its backside, flows the River Yamuna and there is a pool on its front, in which there are fountains, and also a beautiful garden of Mughal style. There are graves of Queen Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan in this tomb.

RED FORT (LAL QILA) OF DELHI: The Red Fort (Lal Qila) situated near river Yamuna is a memorable building of the golden period of Mughal Dynasty. It was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan in the seventeenth century. In the ‘Deewan-e-Khaas’ (Special Hall) of this fort is the ‘Peacock Throne’ (Takht-e-Taus) on which the Mughal Emperors sat and ruled the entire kingdom of India.

There are two doors of the fort; one of which is called the ‘Delhi Gate’ while the other is called the ‘Lahori Gate’. When this fort was built, at that time the River Yamuna passed through touching its back walls but now it flows at some distance. Even today, on the Independence Day every year, the Prime Minister addresses the nation from the walls of this fort.

JAME MOSQUE (JAME MASJID) OF DELHI: This is the most important mosque of the capital Delhi of India. It was built by the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan which was completed in 1656 A.D.  It is one of the biggest and the most famous mosques in India. It is situated at the beginning of the busiest and the most famous Chandni Chowk in the Old Delhi. More than twenty five thousand worshippers can perform salat  (prayer) in the courtyard of this mosque. At least one million (ten lakh rupees) rupees were spent on its construction.

During his reign, Shah Jahan built grand mosques in Delhi, Agra, Ajmer and Lahore in which the Jame Mosque of Delhi and the Badshahi Mosque of Lahore has approximately the similar architecture.

There are three ways i.e. eastern, northern and the southern ways by which one can reach the courtyard of the mosques via stairs. There are 39 stairs in the northern gate, 33 stairs in the southern gate and 35 stairs in the eastern gate of the mosque. The eastern gate was the royal passage through which the King entered in the mosque.

The mosque is 261 feet long and 90 feet wide, there are three domes built on its roof. On the side of the mosque are two minarets of 130 feet of height. In addition, there are four small towers situated at the back side of the mosque.

FATEH PUR SIKRI: The Mughal Emperor Akbar started its construction in 1570 and this city remained the capital of the Mughal Dynasty from 1571 A.D. till 1585 A.D. It was the same type of city as there was Madina-Tuz-Zohra in Cordoba. But the fortune of Fateh Pur Sikri was better than Madina-Tuz-Zohra, because the town of Madina-Tuz-Zohra was destroyed very soon and now there is nothing left but their ruins. But the magnificent palaces and buildings of Fateh Pur Sikri are still present and people from all around the world go and visit them. Apart from this, there are numerous memorable buildings of Mughals about which if the description is written that it would become a voluminous book.

ARCHITECTURE OF OTTOMAN DYNASTY:

Ottoman dynasty was the Muslim dynasty that remained from 1299 A.D. till 1922 A.D. whose rulers were the Turks. In its rising period (16th -17th century), this empire spread over three continents.

The initial architecture of the Ottoman Empire was influenced by the Seljuq architecture but after the victory of Constantinople, it got influenced by the Roman architecture. But later it was improved further and thus it became famous as modern Ottoman architecture all over the world. The Ottoman emperors paid a lot of attention on the architecture. The construction of mosques, seminaries and palaces in Yani city, Barosa, Adrana and Constantinople; and the Ottoman buildings all over the Empire after the victory of Constantinople are the reflections of this great dynasty and they are still present today as the memorable structures of this great legacy. There is a prominent Seljuq style in all the mosques built in the Ottoman period of fourteenth century; the most important examples are the magnificent mosques of Barosa in which the ‘Bayezid Jame’ and ‘Olu Jame’ are prominent. In the fifteenth century, the style of Barosa was followed in the mosques of Istanbul, but in the bigger mosques the style of Aya Sufia Jame was followed which was a Byzantine Church but it was converted to a mosque after the victory of Constantinople. The Turk constructors built several excellent and tall buildings in which the Faateh Jame, Sulaimia Jame, Sulaimania Jame and Takoye Jame are prominent. The Ottoman architecture is still present today with its beauty

and magnificence. Even wherever the Turk emigrants build the mosques, they are the masterpieces of this architecture.

The mentioning of Ottoman architecture is incomplete without Sinan Pasha who glorified the architecture of this era with his style and skill. The Sanani style is prominent everywhere in the Ottoman buildings of the sixteenth century and is still present today in its magnificent form. Shahzada Mosque and the Sulaimia Mosque are the artworks of this great constructor. Sinan built great mosques in Constantinople, Adrana and other cities. The ‘Topkapi’ and the ‘Dolma Baghcha’ were the masterpieces of their times.

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