FOUNDATIONS OF THE FIRST ISLAMIC STATE AT MADINAH MUNAWWARAH
Indeed the first Islamic society was the one which was founded by the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) and trained by him. No doubt, that is an ideal society for any society. The foundations on which the Holy Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) established it are as follows:
THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE MOSQUE
Upon his arrival at Madinah, the first thing the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) did was the construction of a mosque. There was a very great influence of the mosque for persuading the Islamic society to follow the Islamic morals and Islamic teachings. The mosque was not just the place for offering the prayer but it was also used for education and training, leadership, governance and different Islamic processes. In the mosque, the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) guided the Muslims about the Islamic injunctions, its teachings and manners. He gave his verdicts among people in the mosque. The strategy of war was set in the mosque. The sending of the ambassadors to the Emperors was ordered there. Thus, all the matters of the Islamic government were performed in the mosque. Patients were cured and their aid and relief works were carried out in the mosque, whether at times of war or peace. In this way, the role of the mosque is evident in the growth and development of Islamic state and its culture.
TO MAKE MUSLIMS BROTHERS OF EACH OTHER
After construction of mosque at Madinah for the development of the Islamic society, the next thing that the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) did was the matter of ‘Muakhaat’ (Brotherhood) among Muslims. This work was started among the Muslims of Makkah before migration. The Muhajireen of Makkah did not have anything left after migrating to Madinah. They had left their wealth and children in Makkah. Then the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) made the Ansaar and Muhajireen brothers to one another. The matter of Muakhaat was based on financial grounds like sharing in the wealth and being heirs of one another in inheritance. In addition, the matter of Muakhaat was also based on literal and ethical grounds like to love and help each other. The process of Muakhaat continued till the battle of Badr in the second year of Hijrah. Then Allah Almighty revealed this verse:
وَأُولُو الْأَرْحَامِ بَعْضُهُمْ أَوْلَى بِبَعْضٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ (الأنفال: 75)
Translation of Meaning: “…But kindred by blood have prior rights against each other in the Book of Allah. Verily Allah is well-acquainted with all things.’” (Sura Al-Anfaal, Verse 75)
After this, the inheritance started based on relationships and blood kinship.
The Muslims of Madinah loved the Muhajireen very much. They preferred them over themselves due to which Allah (T’aala) praised them. Allah Almighty says:
وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيمَانَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِمَّا أُوتُوا وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَى أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ وَمَنْ يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ (الحشر: 9)
Translation of Meaning: “But those who before them, had homes (in Medina) and had adopted the Faith,- show their affection to such as came to them for refuge, and entertain no desire in their hearts for things given to the (latter), but give them preference over themselves, even though poverty was their (own lot). And those saved from the covetousness of their own souls, they are the ones that achieve prosperity.”(Sura Al-Hashr, Verse 9)
This love that existed among Muslims was a blessing upon them from Allah (T’ala), which had made the Muslims a family and a group.
TREATY BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND NON-MUSLIMS
After Muakhaat among Muslims, the people of Madinah were divided into two groups; one was the group of Muslims and the other was that of the non-Muslims in which majority was of Jews. The Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) created a charter to have peaceful relations with them. This charter is a great cultural heritage in the political and collective life of Islam to explain the rights and obligations of Muslims and non-Muslims over each other, which was never realised before by the Arabian island.
PROPHET (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) AS THE BEAUTIFUL PATTERN OF CONDUCT FOR MUSLIMS:
Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) is the beautiful pattern of conduct and the ideal ruler for the Islamic society. He (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) consulted with his Companions (RadhiAllahu Anhum) in many matters and he used to hold consultation in all those matters about which he received no revelation by Allah; as Hazrat Abu Huraira (RadhiAllahu Anhu) said:
مَا رَأَيْتُ أَحَدًا أَكْثَرَ مَشُورَةً لِأَصْحَابِهِ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ (الترمذي)
Translation: “I have never seen a person who consulted his Companions (R.A) more than Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam).”(Tirmizi)
The Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) often joked with his Companions (RadhiAllahu Anhum) and mingled with them, accepted the invitations from the free and the slaves, were always the first to greet and in shaking hands. He (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam) accepted the excuses of the others. He (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam ) repaired his clothes and shoes on his own and helped his house members. Other than these, there were numerous good qualities in Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam).
Allah Almighty has ordered the Companions (RadhiAllahu Anhum) to follow the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam). Allah Almighty says:
لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا (الأحزاب: 21)
Translation of Meaning: “Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah.”(Sura Al-Ahzab, Verse 21)
Therefore, the Companions (RadhiAllahu Anhum) followed the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam), as a result of which the training of the new Islamic society was based on Islamic teachings and beautiful pattern of conduct of the Prophet (SallAllahu Alaihi Wasallam). In this way, Islamic culture represented the model of firm and strong foundations, proven rules, high morals and excellent pattern of conduct in front of the world. It created the best group which was sent in the world in order to preach about doing good deeds and stopping others from doing bad deeds and to have belief in Allah.