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During the time of Ayyubid Dynasty, the tradition of writing the Qur’anic verses and Ahadith in the ‘Naskh (1) Script’ on buildings started. The salient feature of this period’s architecture is the construction of high towers and monasteries. Many ‘madaris’ (Schools) or seminaries were also constructed. Some of these madrasahs (Schools) are as follows:

  1. 1. MADRASAH NASIRYA: This madrasa (school) was located near Amr Bin Al Aas mosque.
  2. 2. MADRASAH SALAHIA: Sultan Salah-ud-din Ayyubi built this madrasah near the grave of Imam Shafi (May Allah mercy on him) in 572 Hijrah.
  3. 3. MADRASAH SULTAN NAJM-UD-DEEN: It had two important parts. The passage passed through the centre. Its gate was tower-shaped.
  4. 4. THE TOMB OF SULTAN NAJM-UD-DEEN: Madrasah had this tomb too. The dome of this tomb was made of bricks whereas its walls were made of stones. In Islam, the construction of tomb is totally Haraam or unlawful, and the Seljuqs started creating tombs for the very first time.


The slave kings of Egypt and Syria are called Mamluk, because Mamluk means slave in Arabic. They were divided into two families. One family was of Bahri Mamluks which reigned from 647 Hijrah to 784 Hijrah and the other family was that of Burji Mamluks which reigned from 784 Hijrah to 922 Hijrah.

Important memorable architectural structures of Bahri Mamluks are as follows:

  1. 1. JAME MOSQUE OF BAIBARS: It was built by King Zahir Baibars who was the first famous ruler of Mamluks.
  2. 2. NASIR QALADUN MOSQUE: This mosque was square-shaped. The courtyard was open and there were sheds around all the four sides of the mosque. There were two doors in the front part of the mosque.
  3. 3. MADRASAH AND MOSQUE SULTAN HASSAN: This magnificent madrasah (School) and mosque is situated in the fortress of Sultan Salah-ud-Deen. It was built by Sultan Hassan Bin Muhammad bin Qaladun. It is an important memorable structure of Islamic architecture.

Burji Mamluks also had interest in making magnificent buildings and their important memorable buildings are as follows:

  1. 1. MOSQUE AND MADRASAH OF SULTAN BARQUQ: It was built by Sultan Barquq who is the founder of the government of Burji Mamluks.
  1. 2. MADRASAH AND TOMB OF SULTAN QABAT BAY: It is one of the important buildings of Islamic architecture. In Egypt, there is a series of the buildings and structures of Sultan Qabat Bay such as madrasah, mosque, hospice, tomb, monastery and towers etc.
  1. 3. MOSQUE AND ARCHITECTURAL COLLECTION OF GHAURI: The mosque of Ghauri is regarded among the important Islamic buildings and its architectural collection consists of baths, palaces, hospices, seminaries and towers etc.


Seljuqs built magnificent buildings, seminaries, hospitals and mosques etc. The greatest achievement of Seljuqs is the foundation of Madrasahs (schools). Previously, education was given inside the mosques but in the period of Seljuqs, grand madrasahs were built by Malik Shah and his worthy minister Nizam-ul-Mulk Tusi, that were named after his name as Nizamia. Therefore, within a few years, a network of madrasahs was established in the whole kingdom with the help of official funds. The biggest among them was the Madrasah Nizamia of Baghdad. A big property was trusted for the expenses of this Madrasah. Two lakh Dinars were spent on its construction and all the students were given stipends.


(1) In Arabic language, there are different scriptures like the Kufi script, the Usmani script, the Naskh script and the Persian script etc.

When Malik Shah observed that Nizam-ul-Mulk was spending lots of wealth on madrasahs, one day he said to him: “Father! The money you are spending on the madrasahs, if you spend it on the Army the world can be conquered.”

Nizam-ul-Mulk answered: “Son! The Army that you’ll recruit, its arrows would not reach farther than some yards, but the army I am preparing of people of wisdom, their arrows of prayers would reach beyond the heavens. It is important to remember that Seljuqs were the first to found the tradition of making tombs which is not allowed in Islam.