Tawhid al Rubu`biyah (Oneness of the Lordship of Allah)
The Quran says in the words of Prophet Musa (Alaihis Salam):
قَالَ كَلاَّ إِنَّ مَعِي رَبِّي سَيَهْدِينِ (62) الشعراء: 62
(Translation of meaning) [“He said never. Verily my Creator is with me. He shall guide me” Al-Sha’ra: 62)]. The belief in oneness of the lordship of Allah means that every Muslim believes that Allah is the creator and maker of everything and there is nobody else besides Him. He alone feeds all and He alone gives life and death. It is He who raises and causes to fall; He is giver of all honour and dishonour. All authority is his monopoly. Thus Allah Almighty says:
أَلا لَهُ الْخَلْقُ وَالأَمْرُ (54) الأعراف:54
(Translation of meaning) [“Hark! Creation and governance are reserved for Him” (Al-A’raf: 54)].
Creation and giving of life and death are all functions of Allah the Almighty. The belief in the creativity of Allah leads us to believe that He is alone the real causator of all functions. At the advent of Islam, the polytheists of Makkah admitted that the source of creation, the giver of life and death and giver of benefit and loss was Allah the Almighty but in fact, they neither obeyed the commands of Allah, nor truly believed in His existence. Thus their admittance of oneness of lordship of Allah with denial of oneness of worship of Allah was in no way useful for them. Allah has described their admittance in the Quran in these words:
وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ فَأَنَّا يُؤْفَكُونَ (61) العنكبوت:61
(Translation of meaning) [“And if you asked them who created the heavens and earth and who controls the sun and moon they will say Allah. But then why are they led astray?” (Al-Ankabut: 61) ]. In another place He says:
قُلْ لِمَنْ الأَرْضُ وَمَنْ فِيهَا إِنْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (84) سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلا تَذَكَّرُونَ (85) قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّمَوَاتِ السَّبْعِ وَرَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ (86) سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ أَفَلا تَتَّقُونَ (87) قُلْ مَنْ بِيَدِهِ مَلَكُوتُ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَهُوَ يُجِيرُ وَلا يُجَارُ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (88) سَيَقُولُونَ لِلَّهِ قُلْ فَأَنَّا تُسْحَرُونَ (89) المؤمنون:84-89
(Translation of meaning) [“Say, for whom is the earth and all that contained in it, if you are knowing. They will say for Allah. Say, then why don’t you take counsel? Say, who is the lord of the seven heavens and the lord of the great throne? They will say Allah. Say, who has the ownership of everything and who gives refuge and none can give refuge against him, if you were knowing? They will say Allah. Say, then where are you being charmed to?” (Al-Mominoon: 84-89)].
Here a question arises whether the belief in the oneness of lordship of Allah or admission of his power over life and death is enough for a person to be a believer? The clear answer is never. One who believes in the oneness of lordship of Allah but does not obey Him and does not worship Him; and does not believe in oneness of worship of Allah and monotheism cannot be a believer. The proof is that even the idolaters of Makkah believed in oneness of the lordship of Allah, but they were declared as polytheists. However, there are there are two groups of the deniers of the oneness of the lordship of Allah. One is called the atheists. Allah has said about them:
وَقَالُوا مَا هِيَ إِلاَّ حَيَاتُنَا الدُّنْيَا نَمُوتُ وَنَحْيَا وَمَا يُهْلِكُنَا إِلاَّ الدَّهْرُ الجاثية : 24
(Translation of meaning) [“They said we don’t have anything beyond this our material world where we live and die. Nothing makes us die except time. They have not any knowledge of it. Verily, they are but guessing” (Al-Jathia: 24).
Instead of attributing life and death to Allah the Almighty this group attributes them to the time. The other group is that of the Marxists, who, deny the existence of God and claim that matter is everything and that the universe has come into being of its own. A Muslim becomes aghast over their deviant thinking and becomes all thankful to Allah for being blessed with the bounty of faith and Islam. In fact, when a Muslim recognizes Allah the Almighty as the sole source of all benefit and loss then he becomes fully contented, submits himself to Allah entirely and categorically, refuses to obey any authority other than that of Allah.