Select Page

Oneness of the Names and the Attributes of Allah

 A believer believes in the numerous different names and different attributes of Allah. Some of these names and attributes have been mentioned in the Quran and the authentic sayings of the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam). But some of them have not been revealed to us but they are reserved in His knowledge.  Thus, the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to pray in these terms:

 أَسْأَلُكَ بِكُلِّ اسْمٍ هُوَ لَكَ، سَمَّيْتَ بِهِ نَفْسَكَ، أَوْ أَنْزَلْتَهُ فِي كِتَابِكَ، أَوْ عَلَّمْتَهُ أَحَدًا مِنْ خَلْقِكَ، أَوِ اسْتَأْثَرْتَ بِهِ فِي عِلْمِ الْغَيْبِ عِنْدَكَ

(Translation) “O my God I pray to Thee by every name that belongs to you, by which Thou has named Thyself, or revealed it in Thy Book, or taught it to any of Thy creatures, or preferred to keep it in your knowledge of the occult with you” (Ahmad) ].  Every Muslim has knowledge of the names of God and calls Him by them. Allah says:

قُلْ ادْعُوا اللَّهَ أَوْ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَنَ أَيّاً مَا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى (110) الإسراء:110

(Translation of meaning) [“Call Allah or call Rahman; call by any name for He has numerous noblest names” (Al-Isra: 110)].  In another place He said:

وَلِلَّهِ الأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَى فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا (180) الأعراف:180

(Translation of meaning) [“and for Allah there are numerous noblest names; call Him by them” (Al-A’raf: 180)].

Such names of Allah count 99. The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: إِنَّ لِلَّهِ تِسْعَةً وَتِسْعِينَ اسْمًا مِائَةً إِلَّا وَاحِدًا مَنْ أَحْصَاهَا دَخَلَ الْجَنَّةَ Verily, there are ninety-nine or one less hundred names of Allah. Anybody who counts them will enter the Paradise (unanimous). Because these names are exclusive to Allah one must call Him by names which have been given in the holy Quran or taught us by the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

The 99 names of Allah are as follows:

الـرَّحْــمَــنُ ، الـرَّحِــيـمُ ، الــمَــلِــكُ ، الــقـُـدُّوسُ ، الــسَّــلامُ ، الــمُـؤمِــنُ ، الـمُـهَــيْــمِـنُ ، الـعـَـزيــزُ ، الـجَــبَّــارُ ، الـمُـتَـكَـبِّـرُ، الـخَـالِــقُ ، الــبَـاريءُ ، الــمُـصَـوِّرُ ، الــغـَـفـَّـارُ ، الــقـَهّارُ ، الـوَهـَّـابُ ، الــرَزَّاقُ ، الـفـَـتـَّاحُ ، الـعَـلِــيـمُ ، الـقـَابـِضُ ، الـبَـاسِــط ُ، الخـَافِـضُ ، الـرَّافِــعُ ، الــمُـعِــزُّ ، الــمُــذِلُ ، الـسَّـمِـيعُ ، الـبـصِــيــرُ ، الـحَـكـَـمُ ، الــعَــدْلُ ، الـلَّـطِـيـفُ ، الخَـبـِيـرُ ، الـحَـلِـيـمُ ، الـعـَظِـيـمُ ، الـغـَـفـُـورُ ، الـشَّـكُـورُ ، الـعَـلِـيُّ ، الـكـَبـِـيـرُ ، الحـَفِــيـظ ُ، الـمُـقـِـيـتُ ، الحَـسِــيـبُ  ، الـجَــلِـيـلُ ، الـكَـريـمُ ، الـرَّقِــيـبُ ، الـمُجـِـيـبُ ، الـوَاسِـعُ ، الـحَـكِــيـمُ ، الــوَدُودُ ، الــمَـجـِـيـدُ ، الــبَـاعِــثُ ، الـشَـهـِـيـدُ ، الــحَــقُّ ، الـوَكـِـيـلُ ، الــقـَويُّ ، الــمَــتِــيــنُ ، الـوَلـِيُّ ، الـحَــمِــيـدُ ، الـمحْـصِـي ، الــمُـبْـدِيءُ ، الــمُـعِــيـدُ ، الــمُـحْــيـِي ، الــمُــمِــيـتُ ، الــحَــيُّ ، الــقـَـيُّـومُ ، الـوَاجـِـدُ ، الــمَـاجـِـدُ ، الــوَاحِــدُ ، الــصَّــمَــدُ ، الـــقـَـادِر ، الـمُقـْـتَـدِرُ ، الــمُــقــَدِّمُ ، الـمُـؤَخِــرُ ، الأوَّلُ ، الآخِــــرُ ، الــظـَّاهِــرُ ، الـبـَاطِــنُ ، الـوَالـِـي ، الـمُـتَـعَـال ، الـــبــِـرُّ ، الــتـَّوابُ ، الـمُـنْــتـَـقــِمُ ، الــعَــفـُـوُّ ، الــرَؤوفُ ، مَــالِـــكُ الــمُــلـْــكِ ، ذُو الــجَــلال ِ والإكـْــرَام ِ، الـمُـقـْسِـط ُ، الـجـَامِـعُ ، الــغـَـنـِيُّ ، الـمُـغـْـنِـي ، الــمَـانـِـعُ ، الـــضَّــارُّ ، الــنـَافِــعُ ، الـــنـُّـورُ ، الــهـَـادِي ، الــبـَـدِيـْـعُ ، الــبَـاقـِـي ، الـــوَارِثُ ، الـرَّشِـــيــدُ ، الـصــَّبُــورُ.

Al-Rahman ,Al-Raheem, Al-Malik, Al-Quddus, Al-Salam, Al-Momin, Al-Mohaimin, Al-Aziz, Al-Jabbar, Al-Mutakabbir, Al-Kha’liq, Al-Bari, Al-Musawwir, Al-Ghaffar, Al-Qahhar, Al-Wahhab, Al-Razzaq, Al-Fattah, Al-Aleem, Al-Qabidh, Al-Ba’sith, Al-Kha’fidh, Al-Ra’fe’,  Al-Ja’me’,  Al-Moizz, Al-Mudzill, Al-Sami’,  Al-Baseer, Al-Hakam,  Al-‘Adl,  Al-Lateef, Al-Khabeer, Al-Haleem, Al-Ghafoor,  Al-Shakoor, Al-‘Alee,  Al-Kabeer, Al-Hafeez, Al-Muqueet, Al-Haseeb, Al-Jaleel, Al-Kareem, Al-Raqueeb, Al-Mujeeb,  Al-Wa’se’, Al-Hakeem, Al-Wadood, Al-Majeed, Al-Ba’eth, Al-Shaheed, Al-Haqq, Al-Wakeel, Al-Qawi, Al-Mateen, Al-Wa’lee, Al-Hameed, Al-Mohsee, Al-Mobdi,  Al-Mo’eed, Al-Moh’yee, Al-Momeet,  Al-Hayy, Al-Qayyum,  Al-Wahid-al-Ahad,  Al-Ma’jid, Al-Wa’jid,  Al-Samad,  Al-Qadir, Al-Muqtadir , Al-Muqadammam, Al-Muakhkhar, Al-Awwal, Al-A’khir, Al-Zahir, Al-Ba’tin,  Al-Wali, Al-Mu’alee, Al-Barr, Al-Tawwab, Al-Muntaquim,  Al-‘Afuu, Al-Raoof, Malikul-Mulk, Dzul-Jalal wal-Ikra’m,  Al-Muqsit, Al-Ghani, Al-Ma’ne’, Al-Dha’rr, Al-Nafe’, Al-Nur, Al-Haadi,  Al-Badee’, Al-Ba’qui,  Al-Wa’rith, Al-Rasheed, Al-Saboor.

In addition to the above, the following names are also mentioned in some Quranic Ayats and the sayings of the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam):

A’lim al-Ghaib wash-Shahadah: A Quranic Ayat says:

عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ فَلا يُظْهِرُ عَلَى غَيْبِهِ أَحَداً (26) الجن:26

(Translation of meaning) “He is the knower of the occult and does not unravel His occult to anybody” (AL-Jinn). In another place it is said:

عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ(73) الأنعام:73

(Translation of meaning) “[He is] the knower of the occult and the manifest. And He is the wisest and most informed” (Al-An’aam: 73).

Saree’-al-Hisaab: Allah proclaims in the Quran:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ (51) إبراهيم:51

(Translation of meaning) “Verily, Allah is the fastest taker of accounts” (Ibrahim: 51).

Muquallib-al-Qulub: This has come in the words of a prayer of the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam):

يَا مُقَلِّبَ القُلُوبِ ثَبِّتْ قَلْبِي عَلَى دِينِكَ

 (Translation) “O my God O Muqallib-al-Qulub [the converter of hearts] consolidate our hearts on your faith and religion” (Ahmad, Tirmidhi). In fact, every Muslim prays for his persistence on his faith and religion.  The same object has been mentioned in the Quran in the form of a prayer:

رَبَّنَا لا تُزِغْ قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ لَنَا مِنْ لَدُنْكَ رَحْمَةً إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْوَهَّابُ(8) آل عمران: 8

 “O our Lord don’t let our hearts astray after you have guided us and bestow upon us mercy from your end. Verily, Thou are the great bestower” (Al Imran: 8).

Rafee’-al-Darajaat:

رَفِيعُ الدَّرَجَاتِ ذُو الْعَرْشِ يُلْقِي الرُّوحَ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ عَلَى مَنْ يَشَاءُ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ لِيُنْذِرَ يَوْمَ التَّلاقِي (15) غافر: 15

(Translation of meaning) “He is of the loftiest ranks and the owner of the Throne transmits his revelation upon any of His slaves whom he likes, so that he warns them of the Day of Meeting” (Gha’fir: 15).

The Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

«إِنَّ اللهَ رَفِيقٌ يُحِبُّ الرِّفْقَ، وَيُعْطِي عَلَى الرِّفْقِ مَا لَا يُعْطِي عَلَى الْعُنْفِ »

(Translation of meaning) “Verily, Allah is Rafeeq [lenient] and likes lenience and he gives for lenience what He does not give for harshness” (Muslim). Similarly, he said:

«إِنَّ اللهَ جَمِيلٌ يُحِبُّ الْجَمَالَ»

(Translation of meaning) “Allah is Jameel [beautiful] and he likes beauty” (Muslim). According to another narration, he said:

«إِنَّ اللَّهَ جَوَادٌ يُحِبُّ الْجَوَادَ، وَيُحِبُّ مَعَالِيَ الْأَخْلَاقِ وَيَكْرَهُ سَفْسَافَهَا»

 (Translation of meaning) “Verily, Allah is Munificent and likes munificence; He likes highest of good conduct and abhors misdemeanours” (Bihaqui). There is yet another saying:

«إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَيِيٌّ سِتِّيرٌ يُحِبُّ الْحَيَاءَ وَالسَّتْرَ »

(Translation of meaning) ”Verily, God the Great is tolerant, modest and concealer [of people’s shortcomings] and He likes modesty and concealment” (Abu Dawood, Nisai, Ahmad). Truly a believer venerates these names of Allah in a befitting manner. He knows everything. Nothing is beyond the sphere of His knowledge. Whatever knowledge is granted to human beings is an endowment from Allah. Thus, all his names, which have been taught to us, are up to this Ayat:

وَمَا أُوتِيتُمْ مِنْ الْعِلْمِ إِلاَّ قَلِيلاً (85) الإسراء :85

 (Translation of meaning) “You have not been given of knowledge except a little” (Isra: 85).

The Attributes of Allah

Like his belief in the divine Being a Muslim believes in divine attributes too. Just like the magnificent divine names, the divine attributes are also loftiest, grandest and loveliest. All these attributes are but the manifestations of the lordship and divinity of the Supreme Being. Every believer feels the light and florescence of these names and attributes in his heart. Of these some attributes are characterized as kamali [denoting the perfection of the Divine Being] some as jalali [denoting the grandeur of the Divine Being]. Some people put them into negative and positive categories.

*****