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Commandments Regarding War

 Responding immediately to the call for jihad:

The Messenger of Allah () was examining the martyrs of Uhud when he saw water pouring down the body of Hanzalah bin Aamir (Radhi Allahu Anhu). He () sent some companions to his wife. They returned and told that it was his first night after marriage when the call for Battle of Uhud was made. He rushed for defending Islam. He fought the enemies and piercing through the rows of the enemies he reached to the leader of the infidels Abu Sufiyan bin Harb (before he had embraced Islam).  Hanzalah was about to kill Abu Sufiyan when Shaddad bin Aws saw him. Shaddad attacked and Hanzalah was martyred. When the Messenger of Allah () knew the incident he said:

«إِنَّ صَاحِبَكُمْ – ،یَعنیِ حَنْظَلَةَ، – لَتُغَسِّلُهُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ، فَاسْأَلُوا أَهْلَه : مَا شَأْنُهُ؟، فَسُئِلَتْ صَاحِبَتُهُ، فِقالتْ: خَرَجَ و ھُوَ جُنُبٌ حِینَ سَمِعَ الھاتِفۃَ، فقال رسولُ اللہِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: لِذٰلِك غَسَّلَتْہُ المَلائِکۃُ» [الحاکم، البیہقی]

Translation: “Surely your companion, i.e. Hanzalah, the angels are giving him bath. Ask his family what the case is. So his wife was asked, she replied: “When he heard the call, he went out while he was yet to take the obligatory bath after sexual intercourse.” The Messenger of Allah () said: Therefore, the angels gave him bath.” [Hakim, Baihaqi]

So, Hadrat Hanzalah (Radhi Allahu Anhu) got a high status to Allah because he had responded to the call for jihad immediately. Allah says:

« انفِرُوا خِفَافاً وَثِقَالاً وَجَاهِدُوا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنفُسِكُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ (41)» [التوبة:41]

Translation of Meaning : Therefore, it is obligatory upon every Muslim to respond to the call for jihad, otherwise he may be the specimen of Allah’s saying:

«يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَا لَكُمْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمْ انفِرُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ اثَّاقَلْتُمْ إِلَى الأَرْضِ أَرَضِيتُمْ بِالْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا مِنْ الآخِرَةِ فَمَا مَتَاعُ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا فِي الآخِرَةِ إِلاَّ قَلِيلٌ (38) إِلاَّ تَنفِرُوا يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَاباً أَلِيماً وَيَسْتَبْدِلْ قَوْماً غَيْرَكُمْ وَلا تَضُرُّوهُ شَيْئاً وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (39) » [التوبة : 38-39]

Translation of Meaning : “O ye who believe! What aileth you that when it is said unto you: Go forth in the way of Allah, ye are bowed down to the ground with heaviness. Take ye pleasure in the life of the world rather than in the Hereafter? The comfort of the life of the world is but little in the Hereafter. If ye go not forth He will afflict you with a painful doom, and will choose instead of you a folk other than you. Ye cannot harm Him at all. Allah is Able to do all things.” [At-Taubah:38-39]

Women, too, responded to the call for jihad and played an important role. They treated the hurt and arranged food for the soldiers. More than this, Nusaiba bint Ka’b (Radhi Allahu Anha) would also throw arrows on the enemies and fought like men. This was purely for raising the word of Allah and spreading His invitation.

Steadfastness during war:

In the Battle of Uhud Muslims scattered. Some of them got martyred and some others ran away. The infidels closed in on the Messenger of Allah () to kill him but he () and some of his companions remained firm like mountains and kept on fighting fearlessly, with steadfastness and resolve until the polytheists fled away. Similarly, in the Battle of Hunain, too, the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) presented a shining example of firmness. In the war, Muslims had fled from around him, but he () was remaining there with firmness and resolve. Only a few Muslims were with him, but then he called Muslims:

«‏ أَنَا النَّبِيُّ لاَ كَذِبْ أَنَا ابْنُ عَبْدِ الْمُطَّلِبْ» [بخاري و مسلم]

Translation: “I am the Prophet undoubtedly; I am the son of Abdul Muttalib.” [Bukhari and Muslim]

Hearing this, Muslims again gathered around him and fought firmly to ultimately get victory.

It is not allowed for Muslims to run away from the battlefield except in two conditions:

One of them is that they run to a better place or join another group of their mujahid brothers. Allah Almighty says:

« يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا لَقِيتُمْ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا زَحْفاً فَلا تُوَلُّوهُمْ الأَدْبَارَ (15) وَمَنْ يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئِذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلاَّ مُتَحَرِّفاً لِقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيِّزاً إِلَى فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِنْ اللَّهِ وَمَأْوَاهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ (16)» [الأنفال:15-16]

Translation of Meaning: “O ye who believe! When ye meet those who disbelieve in battle, turn not your backs to them. Whoso on that day turneth his back to them, unless manoeuvring for battle or intent to join a company, he truly hath incurred wrath from Allah, and his habitation will be hell, a hapless journey’s end.” [Al-Anfal:15-16]